The next iteration of the network: AVS will bring Web3 trust mechanisms to Web2

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By Sumanth Neppalli, Polygon Ventures
Compiled by: Yangz, Techub News
AVS (Active Verification Service) combines the scale of Web2 with the trust mechanism of Web3, opening up the next iteration of the network. This article will briefly outline the Active Verification Service (AVS) ecosystem of EigenLayer.
While blockchains can effectively settle transactions, trying to offload all computation to smart contracts is extremely challenging due to latency and throughput limitations. Even Rollup solutions cannot fully meet the combined needs of front-end hosting, oracles, and databases.
Smart contracts need to interact with the account layer, and paying gas fees for each transaction is too expensive, so they must be designed carefully. Take Uniswap as an example. Its latest v4 version uses the Hook mechanism, which is an externally deployed contract that provides highly customized functions for market makers and users, such as limit orders, dynamic fee structures, customized oracles, and TWAMM (time-weighted average market maker).
The future of blockchain computing may be a hybrid architecture that separates computing and storage into a transient layer and a persistent layer. The blockchain, as a persistent layer with high security guarantees, can maintain a shared state among multiple validators. Low validator requirements ensure broad decentralization, minimize censorship, and protect key data such as transaction logs and identities. AVS introduces a temporary layer, which is maintained by a decentralized operator network that provides hardware such as GPUs, ZK validators, and solid-state drives. The operator network provides specialized services including execution engines, virtual machines, oracles, and distributed key generation.
Web2 relies on centralized cloud service providers for storage and computing, making it less secure and vulnerable to censorship. Although AWS replicates data in different locations for redundancy, sensitive information such as bank accounts still needs to be hosted by the government.
Unlike centralized cloud service providers, AVS services are powered by a subset of Ethereum operators who stake their share of the cryptocurrency to prove their honesty and reliability. Even if the state of the temporary layer is compromised, user funds remain safe on the persistent blockchain layer.
AVS's core commitment is to provide Web3 trust guarantees for any computation (whether on-chain or off-chain). Its architecture supports verifiable cloud services and verifiable computation.
The first is a verifiable cloud service.
Versatus launched a cloud service called AVS, called Allegra, which provides censorship-resistant, transparent infrastructure for dApps at a cost 50% lower than traditional cloud service providers. These applications are hosted on the AVS node network, eliminating single points of failure.
In the future, we are likely to see a new class of applications that are different from traditional DApps that reside entirely on the chain. Versatus named them "Unstoppable Apps" and introduced a new framework similar to the HTTPS standard we are familiar with.
Applications like decentralized social media that require recommended information are now possible. AVS achieves this by supporting advanced algorithms that continuously update user feeds based on their history, creating a dynamic experience when accessing on-chain media NFTs.
Do we need "trust" for such services?
Just as we expect quality from physical services, we need integrity in every calculation of software. Unlike tangible goods, where quality can be seen, trust in software depends on the invisible processes behind each function. The algorithms that influence our lives lack transparency. Take the recent leak of Google's search engine optimization (SEO) algorithm, for example, where it was clear that Google misled the public about how it ranked web pages.
So, how high is the cost of this "trust"?
Since we are still in the early stages, it is difficult to calculate the additional cost of AVS operating software. Sreeram Kannan, founder of EigenLayer, has estimated that achieving cryptoeconomic security for financial transactions would cost an additional 0.1% in operating expenses.
In addition to "trust", the second key advantage of AVS is "verifiable computing".
The AVS node network can perform off-chain computations with the support of cryptoeconomic/ZK proofs (which can be used as application inputs), which also opens up the possibility of experiments interacting with artificial intelligence agents.
For example, the Hook mechanism of Uniswap v4 can be combined with a decentralized matching engine hosted on a dedicated AVS node. This pool of operators can efficiently match thousands of trade requests with counterparties and create batch transactions settled on the chain.
AVS operators cannot steal user funds and can only match trades based on user-defined intents. This architecture allows operators to process intent, integrate AI-driven results, manage dark pools, and develop applications with variable fees to enhance functionality.
AVS provides a neutral, accessible and unstoppable network service. It provides developers with a powerful node network that can handle any professional calculations on demand, thus simplifying the development process without having to build from scratch. Currently, there are 1,459 AVS operators and 16 AVS services. Among them, EigenDA ranks first with 264 active operators.
The possibilities that AVS can unlock are very broad and cover many areas. We divide them into 3 major categories, including:
  • Verifiable Web2 Infrastructure
  • Web3 Infrastructure
  • Rollup Service
The first is trustless Web2 services , including content delivery, key management, and decentralized computing.
For example, Witness chain uses the AVS "Watchtower" service (Watchtower) spread all over the world to provide proof of location by analyzing network latency. Another example is Mishti, which generates private keys from biometrics through a set of distributed nodes, combining MPC and Threshold signatures with AVS to provide smoother login measures and enhance privacy protection. In addition, AVS is also changing decentralized computing, providing traders with innovative technologies such as off-chain matching engines. Cedro Finance is preparing to launch an artificial intelligence proxy layer that allows LPs to dynamically calculate CEX and DEX prices to provide timely liquidity.
The second is Web3 infrastructure. AVS can power the fundamental principles that blockchain and Rollup rely on. By ensuring the security of the DA layer, providing ZK-supported oracles, and deploying an easily integrated monitoring system, AVS can strengthen the Web3 ecosystem.
For example, in the decentralized verification process of Lagrange and Brevis, queries are transferred to the off-chain AVS network for execution and verification, and then reintegrated into the contract. Another example is EigenDA, an innovative DA solution inspired by the Danksharding roadmap. Its AVS operators provide enterprise-grade solid-state drives to store data, with storage speeds of up to 10 Mbps in testing. With the addition of more operators, the goal is to reach 1 Gbps.
Finally, there are Rollup services protected by AVS, such as cross-chain bridges, interoperability solutions, fast settlement layers, shared sequencers, re-collateralized Rollups, etc. Currently, NEAR is developing a fast finality layer NFFL that uses AVS to prove the Rollup status across L2.
In summary, AVS is a transformative cryptoeconomic layer on top of the blockchain that enables developers to build trustless applications using any programming language.

Disclaimer: The content above is only the author's opinion which does not represent any position of Followin, and is not intended as, and shall not be understood or construed as, investment advice from Followin.
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